Guidebook on purchasing fittings

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How does a mixer tap work?

Whether it is a mixer tap for a washbasin, bidet, bathtub, shower, or fittings for the kitchen sink, water dispensers generally only differ slightly in the way they work. In general, a mixer tap is a valve that functions in only one direction using water pressure coming from a pipe. Opening the one-way valve can be done mechanically, using a simple turning movement on the faucet, lever or thermostat, or electronically, using a sensor, depending on the type of tap. Mixer types with two release functions are especially popular in kitchens, since users often don’t have any hands free to operate them in this setting.

Using a variety of jet controls, also called diffusors or aerators, users can also individually adjust the force and direction of the flow, as well as the flow rate of the water. Matching seals secure the tap from wasting water unnecessarily. Dripping mixer taps should be repaired or replaced as quickly as possible to avoid the associated water costs and lime spots and to save water.

All mixer taps sold in Germany are subjected to a series of national and international norms and regulations. For example, there are concrete requirements for noise protection for mixer taps. These are regulated in DIN 4109 (noise protection in public buildings), for instance, in apartment buildings and hospitals. Mixer taps are generally divided into two noise classes: noise class I (< 20 dB) corresponds to the volume level of your own breathing, while noise class II (< 30 dB) is comparable to the level of noise emitted by a PC fan. Additionally, there are a large number of product certifications and quality certificates that manufacturers can obtain voluntarily. To ensure a mixer tap offers a good level of safety and quality, customers should look for associated certificates or test seals such as the DVGW mark of conformity or the TÜV certification. The noise class can be found on the P-IX noise level mark of conformity: for example P-IX 8049/IB for noise class I and flow class B.

Interesting information and facts about kitchen and bath mixer taps
  • Drain set
    Valve for blocking and controlling the water flow outlets on sanitary equipment.
  • Booster
    Pulsating massage jet. One of three spray patterns in the Kludi A-QA range
  • Show glossary

High-pressure or low-pressure fittings – which fittings do I need?

The way in which water is heated determines whether you need high or low-pressure fittings. High pressure fittings are the general standard, and are used anywhere water is fed in through the centralised hot water supply.

Many KLUDI fitting lines feature low-pressure models.

Low-pressure fittings

A low-pressure fitting is used if there is only a cold water connection and the hot water is produced decentrally in the form of a low-pressure storage tank directly near the fitting and only when required.

While the flow heater heats up, it is possible for the mixer taps to drip.

This is quite normal and should not be a cause for concern, because the tap dripping after use is based on the physical process that the water expands when heated and escapes through the tap's permanently opened hot water outlet.

Which types of bathroom mixer taps are there?

The selection of mixer taps is almost limitless. Fittings can differ in their area of use, their functions and in how they are installed.

  • Pillar tap

  • Single-lever mixer

  • Twin-handle fittings

  • Washbasin single lever mixer

  • Wall-mounted mixer tap

  • Sensor tap

  • Single-lever shower mixer

  • Thermostatic shower tap

  • Concealed single-lever shower mixer

  • Concealed thermostatic mixer

  • Bathtub rim fittings

  • Bathtub stand fittings

  • Bath inlet

  • Bath filler and shower fittings

  • Concealed bath filler and single-lever shower mixer

  • Concealed bath filler and thermostatic shower mixer

  • Single-lever mixer

  • Twin-handle fittings

Which functions are there?

Mono mixers

Mono mixers permit a quick choice of temperature and flow volume using a single element and with one hand so that the other hand remains free to test the desired temperature of the water at the spout. Typical areas of application for the mono mixer: washbasin, shower and bath.

Twin-handle fittings

Twin-handle fittings have separate valves for hot and cold water. These fittings are popular for their typical retro look and because they do also offer advantages in some situations. For example, hot water can be let into a bath without any great loss of heat – and then cold water added as required. Typical areas of application: retro bath, bath, washbasin.

VersatilityPlus in the bathroom

Many people use their washbasin to do more than merely wash their hands. That’s why KLUDI offers more: thanks to the broad spouts that come in a multitude of heights and shapes, the VersatilityPlus concept makes it easy to fill watering cans, buckets and vases and also wash your hair in the washbasin. Models with swivelling spouts even guarantee that mixer taps are never in your way.

Wall-mounted mixer taps

You can select between two different variations of this mixer tap type: surface-mounted and concealed. If you decide for the concealed variation, KLUDI recommends using KLUDI FLEXX.BOXX, since this type of assembly requires concealed elements. KLUDI offers a wide variety of fittings, both for washbasins and for showers and tubs.

Electronic bathroom fittings

Electronic fittings are typically installed in washbasins. An infrared eye permits no-touch switching-on of the water. These fittings are specially designed for hygiene and come from the public sector, but they also look good in guest lavatories and much-used private bathrooms. Thanks to their no-touch mode of operation, they are very easy to clean because you don’t have to turn them off with wet hands. Typical area of application: washbasin.


Thermostats are the masters of convenience among mixers: there’s a scale for pre-setting the temperature so that water of precisely the desired temperature comes out of the spout. A special thermal element ensures that it functions properly at all times. The fast-response mixer element balances out temperature fluctuations without the user even noticing. Thermostats have an anti-scald limiter, or hot water barrier, that must to be switched off. This
is an important safety argument in homes with children. Typical area of application: shower.

Concealed fittings with the KLUDI FLEXX.BOXX

For concealed fittings, the main elements – in other words, the functional elements of the fitting – are built into the wall after the operating elements have been mounted. Such concealed solutions have an aesthetic, premium appearance. Thanks to the KLUDI FLEXX.BOXX, such fittings are very safe in practice, even though the technology disappears into the wall. Anyone who has installed a FLEXX.BOXX can also alter the function and design of his or her fitting later on: by switching from a mono mixer, in other words, to a thermostat, or selecting a different design line. Typical areas of application: shower and bath.

Installation types: before you plan your bathroom, it is important to decide on a type of installation

. . . so that your installer can plan all your connections.

My new bathroom


Mixer tap that is wall-mounted where the water is mixed in the tap in front of the wall.

Product pictured: KLUDI LOGO NEO

To series


Mixer tap with concealed body for mixing water that is installed inside the wall and operating elements and water outlet that are mounted on the wall.

If you decide on a concealed solution, we recommend you use our KLUDI FLEXX.BOXX.

To the product

Which special functions do KLUDI bathroom mixer taps offer?


There are a great many washbasins in the world and a great many fittings that do not automatically fit into those washbasins. How can you make sure the fitting you buy will direct the jet of water to the point where it will splash least?

Thanks to KLUDI the answer is quite simple: the s-pointer water jet shaper can be precisely adjusted with just a little fingertip pressure – when the fitting has been mounted, you can decide for yourself which way the want the water to go!

VersatilityPlus in the bathroom

Many people use their washbasin to do more than merely wash their hands. That’s why KLUDI offers more: thanks to the broad spouts that come in a multitude of heights and shapes, the VersatilityPlus concept makes it easy to fill watering cans, buckets and vases and also wash your hair in the washbasin.


A concept that’s as simple as it’s ingenious for showers and baths: start and stop the flow of water at the push of these ergonomic buttons; the temperature is preselected on the thermostat handle. The mechanical pushbuttons snap softly, but audibly, into position but are not sunk into the fitting.

This means that they are always easy to find – even with soapsuds in your eyes.The buttons can even be programmed to customer specification and evencontrol two tapping points, head and body shower nozzles, for example,at the same time. KLUDI PUSH comes with a round or square escutcheonin soft-edge design and is sturdy and easy to clean.

Eco-friendly functions

Water is our most important foodstuff and the preparation of hot water is a major energy consumer – both are good reasons to treat this precious resource sparingly. KLUDI uses special eco-aerators to reduce its fittings’ water consumption without compromising on comfort and convenience.

Enriched with air, the jet of water appears just as full – although the actual water flow rate is up to 40 per cent lower.Some KLUDI mono mixers feature the KLUDI EcoPlus function: this means thatthese mono mixers supply cold water in the central position, which is generallysufficient for hand washing and saves energy in the form of hot water.

Which types of designs are available?

KLUDI offers the right solution for any taste and any bathroom design – as well as for any wallet.

Which special functions do KLUDI kitchen mixer taps offer?

Electronic fittings in the kitchen

How often do we find ourselves with not a hand free? How often do we need to wash dirty hands or sandy lettuce? It’s hard enough to turn the mixer on in such circumstances without having to clean the sink afterwards, as well. KLUDI sensor technology is the key to no-touch water use at the sink. It is intelligent and prevents inadvertent activation. One gesture within the range of the sensor eye is all it takes to turn on the water. The electricity comes from a commercially available, long-life battery or the 230-volt mainssupply. This is not only extremely convenient and avoids constant cleaning, but also impresses guests when the hostess or amateur chef activates the high-tech fitting as if by magic.

Bayonet socket

Having your kitchen unit beneath a window is genuine quality of life – complete with a view outside while you wash up and prepare a meal. Until now, the kitchen fitting was often situated within the range of the window, and was therefore in the way whenever the window needed to be opened or cleaned. This no longer poses a problem thanks to the inventiveness of the KLUDI developers, who have now devised a bayonet socket for the sink fitting. Simply lift out the fitting, lay it flat – and you can open the window unhindered.

Pull-out spout

An adjustable pull-out spout for dishes is a useful aid for cleaning pots and pans. With the rocker switch, you can choose the volume jet for filling and soaking, the aerated spray jet to release leftovers and rinse surfaces.

Retractable spout

Flexibility is everything – and that goes for kitchen fittings, too. A retractable spout extends the radius of the fitting, makes it easier to clean the sink and fill receptacles standing outside the sink or which do not fit under the spout. By the way, only the very best quality materials are used to make retractable KLUDI hoses. What’s more, thanks to a carefully balanced system of counterweights, the hose glides easily, reliably and neatly back into the spout socket.


Switched off the gas stove? Turned off the iron? With the KLUDI Multiconnector, you can travel with an easy conscience. The small valve at the base of the fitting switches off the water supply to the dishwasher or washing machine – obviating all the usual awkward fiddling underneath the sink. This is the simple and intelligent definition of convenience: one small turn and your holiday or weekend trip begins and ends without any worries because you know the water has been switched off.

Low-pressure fittings

Many KLUDI fitting lines feature low-pressure models. A small boiler orenergy-saving flow heater beneath the sink is often used in kitchens that aresome distance from the central hot water boiler. If the appliance is pressureless,a special fitting is required – a low-pressure fitting. The advantage ofthe low-pressure solution: hot water is provided on the spot as needed, andthe technical equipment is not only tried and tested but also inexpensive.

Quick connector

KLUDI recently introduced the quick connector for the fast and reliableinstallation of kitchen fittings with a pull-out spout. The end of the hoseof the pull-out spout clicks onto the adapter on the main body of the fitting.

Prescribed requirements for quality fittings

Dimension compliance
The dimensions of a brand fitting are designed to fit all commercially available complementary products, such as washbasins, baths and bidets. This guarantees that a washbasin fitting can be quickly and easily installed in a washbasin and that the bath and shower fitting always has sufficient reach to fill a bath comfortably.

Quality fittings must be able to withstand constant pressure of up to 10 bar. Brand fittings are tested for impermeability by the manufacturer in short- and longterm tests. Each KLUDI fitting that leaves one of our factories has passed an impermeability test.

Hydraulic characteristics
Normed and manufacturer-developed test methods are applied to test the durability of, for example, the functional unit (cartridge) of a fitting. High-quality mono mixers should withstand 210,000 on/off and temperatureadjustments without any problem. In practice, the application cycle is roughly equivalent to a period of 10 years.

How do I recognize the quality of brand fittings?

Simple. Everything is just right!Fittings are all part of the basic equipment of every household. Without them, it would be impossible to regulate the temperature of running water. Accordingly, there are very many companies selling fittings at very different prices. There’s much more to brand fittings than what you see at first glance: quality materials, thorough workmanship and long-lasting quality.


A key feature of brand fi ttings is that they are so easy to use. The larger the mixing chamber of a mono mixer and the more precisely the fl ow rate can be set, the more convenient the fi tting is. The mixing chamber of between 34 °C and 42 °C fl ow temperature should be positioned at an angle of at least 15° in a quality fi tting. It should be possible to adjust the fl ow rate at an angle of 25°The mono mixers and thermostat mono mixers of brand fi ttings generally have a built-in, adjustable anti-scald limiter.

Bath and shower mixers are fi tted with an automatic adjuster, so that oncethe mixer has been switched off, it returns automatically to its starting position.This rules out the possibility of water unexpectedly coming out of the handpull-out spout.

Surface quality

An internal KLUDI surface guideline with the appropriate factory standards makes for high-quality surfaces that are both decorative and attractive. Only the best layer systems and materials are used in their production.

Assembly friendliness

Fast and easy assembly is another key characteristic of a brand product. As a rule, it will be “ready to install”, in other words, wherever possible each of the individual components have been pre-assembled. Easy-to-understand andself-explanatory assembly and operating instructions are, of course, provided with fi ttings that are complicated to install.

Intrinsically safe for the protection of drinking water

Fittings that come with an integrated shower hose (such as washbasin fittings and bath and shower mono mixers) or are combined with a shower hose must be intrinsically backfl ow-safe. This means that an integrated valve unit prevents sewage from being drawn into the drinking water distribution network and contaminating it. That is why brand fi ttings are always equipped with a backflow protection device to cope with all eventualities.

Noise characteristics & Contract sector

As described in detail under Certifications and standards, a fitting must meet exacting noise specifications.

When fittings are installed in contract-sector properties, such as housing blocks, public-sector buildings, rental accommodation, hospitals, schools, offices and practices, they must meet certain requirements. More about this under Certifications and standards.

Drinking Water Ordinance

The purpose of the Drinking Water Ordinance is to protect human health from the detrimental effects of consuming contaminated water. The provisions of the ordinance guarantee the consistent purity and potability of water for drinking and other purposes.
All materials that come into contact with water must satisfy certain hygiene requirements in order to guarantee the purity and suitability of drinking water for consumption.

Metal materials

KLUDI uses exclusively materials included in the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) list, which defines the requirements for drinking water supply components. The manufacturers of quality products are responsible for compliance with these requirements.

KLUDI keeps the proportion of the alloy constituents lead, nickel and arsenic to a minimum in its products, thus ensuring that the prescribed constituent limits are observed. Regular analyses are conducted to monitor and document the quality of the materials used.

Non-metal materials

All non-metal materials that come into contact with water must hold KTW approval* from the German Health Authority. The products must additionally satisfy the test specifications set out in Worksheet W 270: a material test is conducted to ascertain the long-term microbiological characteristics of the product, thus providing evidence of the safety of the materials in drinking water, especially in terms of prevention of biofilm**.

* Evidence of KTW (plastics in drinking water) approval must be producedfor all hoses, seals, lubricants, etc.

** Biofilm consist of thin layers of slime, or biofilm (micro-organisms), which are mostly embedded in watery systems.

Reducing lead solubility

It goes without saying that all fittings made by the KLUDI Group are produced in compliance with German, European and international standards. These standards list all of the materials that may be used in the manufacture of drinking water supply components. Special processes are additionally employed to reduce the lead content in the surface of fittings.

On 1 December 2013, the amended Drinking Water Ordinance came into effect. It provides that the threshold for lead migration to drinking water at the tapping point should be reduced to 10 μg/l. KLUDI has already been complying with this threshold value for years. A wide variety of fittings is regularly tested for heavy metal solubility by the German Material Testing Institute.

How does KLUDI comply with certification requirements and standards?

There’s certification and certification. A number of national and international standards and regulations determine what makes a premium-quality fitting. Product certifications are voluntary proofs of quality. Manufacturers of brand fittings have their products tested according to the applicable standards by independent test institutes using recognised test procedures.

Our most important certifications:

One of the most important certifications is the DVGW mark of conformity. The mark of conformity is issued by the DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water). Products are eligible for the DVGW mark of conformity when they have passed the following test criteria.

TÜV-Nord certificate
We produce in conformity with DIN EN ISO 9001:2008 and hold the relevant certification. Our quality fittings are developed, produced and distributed in accordance with the provisions of this international standard. A quality management system has been set up accordingly. Its efficacy is sustained, documented and consistently optimised.

Brand fittings carrying this mark of conformity are certified to be of a very high standard of tested quality.
  • Prescribed material compliance
  • Dimension compliance
  • Impermeability
  • Hydraulic characteristics (eg, behaviour during cold water supply failure in thermostats)
  • Mechanical wear characteristics (eg, cartridge activation)
  • Noise characteristics
  • Surface finish requirement